'timezone'에 해당되는 글 5건

  1. 2020.04.08 [Elasticsearch] UTC 를 사용 하는 이유.
  2. 2020.04.08 [Docker] Docker Compose TZ 설정
  3. 2020.03.12 [AWS] 아마존 리눅스 & 우분투 타임존 변경
  4. 2016.06.07 [AWS] JVM 타임존 설정 이슈
  5. 2011.11.07 Timezone Table.

[Elasticsearch] UTC 를 사용 하는 이유.

Elastic/Elasticsearch 2020. 4. 8. 12:28

분명히 어디선가 공식 문서 또는 글을 봤는데 찾지를 못하겠습니다.

 

https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/elasticsearch/reference/current/date.html

https://discuss.elastic.co/t/elastic-utc-time/191877

 

discuss 에 보면 elastic team member 가 코멘트 한 내용이 있습니다.

Elasticsearch doesn't have a native concept of a "pure" date, only of instants in time. 
Given that, I think that it is reasonable to represent a pure date as the instant of 
midnight UTC on that date. 
If you use a different timezone then you will encounter problems as some "dates" 
will not be a whole number of days apart, because of occasions 
when the clocks go forwards or back for daylight savings.

Formatting a date as an instant without an explicit timezone is probably a bad idea, 
because something somewhere will have to guess what timezone to use 
and you may get inconsistent results if those guesses are inconsistent. 
Always specify the timezone, and in this case I recommend UTC as I mentioned above.

When you run an aggregation involving times, 
you can tell Elasticsearch what timezone to use 27. 
It defaults to UTC according to those docs.

I do not, however, know how to get Kibana to interpret 
these dates as you want in a visualisation. 
It's probably best to ask on the Kibana forum for help with that.

그리고 reference 문서에는 아래와 같은 내용이 있습니다.

Internally, dates are converted to UTC (if the time-zone is specified) 
and stored as a long number representing milliseconds-since-the-epoch.

그냥 Elastic Stack 은 기본적으로 @timestamp 값을 저장 시 UTC 0 를 기준으로 저장을 한다고 이해 하시고 질의 시점에 변환을 하거나 별도 localtime 에 맞는 custum timestamp field 를 추가해서 사용하는게 정신 건강에 좋다고 생각 하십시오.

 

추가적으로,

 

Date Query 관련 질의 시 

- "time_zone" 파라미터 설정은 now 값에 영향을 주지 않습니다.

참고 하세요.

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[Docker] Docker Compose TZ 설정

Cloud&Container/IaC 2020. 4. 8. 09:14

docker-compose tz 설정

 

Case 1)

volumes:
  - "/etc/localtime:/etc/localtime:ro"
  - "/etc/timezone:/etc/timezone:ro"


Case 2)

environment:
  - TZ=Asia/Seoul

 

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[AWS] 아마존 리눅스 & 우분투 타임존 변경

Cloud&Container/AWS 2020. 3. 12. 21:20

https://docs.aws.amazon.com/ko_kr/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/set-time.html

 

문서 보고 잘 따라 하시면 됩니다. :)

Amazon Linux AMI에서 Amazon Time Sync Service 구성

Amazon Time Sync Service를 사용하도록 인스턴스를 구성하려면

  1. 인스턴스를 연결하고 NTP 서비스를 제거합니다.

     

    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo yum erase 'ntp*'
  2. chrony 패키지를 설치합니다.

     

    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo yum install chrony
  3. vim 또는 nano과 같은 텍스트 편집기를 사용하여 /etc/chrony.conf 파일을 엽니다. 파일이 다음 라인을 포함하고 있는지 확인합니다.

     

    server 169.254.169.123 prefer iburst minpoll 4 maxpoll 4

    이 라인이 존재할 경우, Amazon Time Sync Service가 이미 구성된 상태이기 때문에 다음 단계로 넘어갈 수 있습니다. 라인이 없는 경우에는 파일에 이미 존재하는 다른 server 또는 pool 문 뒤에 라인을 추가하고 변경 사항을 저장합니다.

  4. chrony 데몬(chronyd)을 다시 시작합니다.

     

    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo service chronyd restartStarting chronyd: [ OK ]

    참고

    RHEL 및 CentOS(최대 버전 6까지)에서 서비스 이름은 chrony이 아니라 chronyd입니다.

  5. chkconfig 명령을 사용해서 매번 시스템이 부팅할 때마다 시작되도록 chronyd를 구성합니다.

     

    [ec2-user ~]$ sudo chkconfig chronyd on
  6. chrony가 169.254.169.123 IP 주소를 사용하여 시간을 동기화하고 있는지 확인합니다.

     

    [ec2-user ~]$ chronyc sources -v210 Number of sources = 7 .-- Source mode '^' = server, '=' = peer, '#' = local clock. / .- Source state '*' = current synced, '+' = combined , '-' = not combined, | / '?' = unreachable, 'x' = time may be in error, '~' = time too variable. || .- xxxx [ yyyy ] +/- zzzz || Reachability register (octal) -. | xxxx = adjusted offset, || Log2(Polling interval) --. | | yyyy = measured offset, || \ | | zzzz = estimated error. || | | \ MS Name/IP address Stratum Poll Reach LastRx Last sample =============================================================================== ^* 169.254.169.123 3 6 17 43 -30us[ -226us] +/- 287us ^- ec2-12-34-231-12.eu-west> 2 6 17 43 -388us[ -388us] +/- 11ms ^- tshirt.heanet.ie 1 6 17 44 +178us[ +25us] +/- 1959us ^? tbag.heanet.ie 0 6 0 - +0ns[ +0ns] +/- 0ns ^? bray.walcz.net 0 6 0 - +0ns[ +0ns] +/- 0ns ^? 2a05:d018:c43:e312:ce77:> 0 6 0 - +0ns[ +0ns] +/- 0ns ^? 2a05:d018:dab:2701:b70:b> 0 6 0 - +0ns[ +0ns] +/- 0ns

    반환된 출력에서 ^*는 기본 설정된 타임 소스를 나타냅니다.

  7. chrony에서 보고된 시간 동기화 지표를 확인합니다.

     

    [ec2-user ~]$ chronyc trackingReference ID : A9FEA97B (169.254.169.123) Stratum : 4 Ref time (UTC) : Wed Nov 22 13:18:34 2017 System time : 0.000000626 seconds slow of NTP time Last offset : +0.002852759 seconds RMS offset : 0.002852759 seconds Frequency : 1.187 ppm fast Residual freq : +0.020 ppm Skew : 24.388 ppm Root delay : 0.000504752 seconds Root dispersion : 0.001112565 seconds Update interval : 64.4 seconds Leap status : Normal

Ubuntu에서 Amazon Time Sync Service 구성

Amazon Time Sync Service를 사용하도록 인스턴스를 구성하려면

  1. 인스턴스를 연결해 apt를 사용하여 chrony 패키지를 설치합니다.

     

    ubuntu:~$ sudo apt install chrony

    참고

    필요할 경우 sudo apt update를 실행하여 먼저 인스턴스를 업데이트합니다.

  2. vim 또는 nano과 같은 텍스트 편집기를 사용하여 /etc/chrony/chrony.conf 파일을 엽니다. 파일에 이미 존재하는 server 또는 pool 문 앞에 다음 라인을 추가하고 변경 사항을 저장합니다.

     

    server 169.254.169.123 prefer iburst minpoll 4 maxpoll 4
  3. chrony 서비스를 다시 시작합니다.

     

    ubuntu:~$ sudo /etc/init.d/chrony restart[ ok ] Restarting chrony (via systemctl): chrony.service.
  4. chrony가 169.254.169.123 IP 주소를 사용하여 시간을 동기화하고 있는지 확인합니다.

     

    ubuntu:~$ chronyc sources -v210 Number of sources = 7 .-- Source mode '^' = server, '=' = peer, '#' = local clock. / .- Source state '*' = current synced, '+' = combined , '-' = not combined, | / '?' = unreachable, 'x' = time may be in error, '~' = time too variable. || .- xxxx [ yyyy ] +/- zzzz || Reachability register (octal) -. | xxxx = adjusted offset, || Log2(Polling interval) --. | | yyyy = measured offset, || \ | | zzzz = estimated error. || | | \ MS Name/IP address Stratum Poll Reach LastRx Last sample =============================================================================== ^* 169.254.169.123 3 6 17 12 +15us[ +57us] +/- 320us ^- tbag.heanet.ie 1 6 17 13 -3488us[-3446us] +/- 1779us ^- ec2-12-34-231-12.eu-west- 2 6 17 13 +893us[ +935us] +/- 7710us ^? 2a05:d018:c43:e312:ce77:6 0 6 0 10y +0ns[ +0ns] +/- 0ns ^? 2a05:d018:d34:9000:d8c6:5 0 6 0 10y +0ns[ +0ns] +/- 0ns ^? tshirt.heanet.ie 0 6 0 10y +0ns[ +0ns] +/- 0ns ^? bray.walcz.net 0 6 0 10y +0ns[ +0ns] +/- 0ns

    반환된 출력에서 ^*는 기본 설정된 타임 소스를 나타냅니다.

  5. chrony에서 보고된 시간 동기화 지표를 확인합니다.

     

    ubuntu:~$ chronyc trackingReference ID : 169.254.169.123 (169.254.169.123) Stratum : 4 Ref time (UTC) : Wed Nov 29 07:41:57 2017 System time : 0.000000011 seconds slow of NTP time Last offset : +0.000041659 seconds RMS offset : 0.000041659 seconds Frequency : 10.141 ppm slow Residual freq : +7.557 ppm Skew : 2.329 ppm Root delay : 0.000544 seconds Root dispersion : 0.000631 seconds Update interval : 2.0 seconds Leap status : Normal

 

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[AWS] JVM 타임존 설정 이슈

ITWeb/개발일반 2016. 6. 7. 14:52

aws 에서 인스턴스 생성 후 java program 에서 사용하던 Date 클래스에서의 시간이 잘 못 나오는 경우가 발생했습니다.

shell 에서 $ date 하면 정상적으로 KST 기준으로 시간이 잘 표시되지만 java application 에서는 GMT 0 로 시간이 표시 되는 문제 입니다.


해결 방법은 크게 두 가지 입니다.


1) 소스 코드에서 timezone 지정을 해서 date 설정을 하는 것입니다.

TimeZone timeZone;

Date date = new Date();

SimpleDateFormat simpleDateFormat = new SimpleDateFormat("MM.dd HH:mm");


timeZone = TimeZone.getTimeZone("Asia/Seoul");

simpleDateFormat.setTimeZone(timeZone);


LOG.debug("{}", simpleDateFormat.format(date));


2) 서버 인스턴스 상에서 timezone 설정을 다시 하는 것입니다.

$ sudo tzselect


5) Asia

...

23) Korea (South)

...

1) Yes

...


$ vi .profile

 

TZ='Asia/Seoul'

export TZ


- 우분투로 구성 하였기 때문에 timezone 구성은 위와 같이 진행 하였습니다.

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Timezone Table.

ITWeb/개발일반 2011. 11. 7. 11:22

[참고사이트]
http://time_zone.tripod.com/index.htm
http://www.datelib.de/Timezones.shtml


Country Country code Timezone
offset (hours)
Summertime
offset (hours)
Zone name
Afghanistan AF 4,5   Asia/Kabul
Albania AL 1 2 Europe/Tirane
Algeria DZ 1 2 Africa/Algiers
American Samoa AS -11   Pacific/Pago_Pago
Andorra AD 1 2 Europe/Andorra
Angola AO 1   Africa/Luanda
Anguilla AI -4   America/Anguilla
Antarctica AQ -2 -3  
Antigua & Barbuda AG -4   America/Antigua
Argentina AR -3    
Argentina western prov   -4    
Armenia AM 4 5 Asia/Yerevan
Aruba AW -4   America/Aruba
Ascension   0    
Australia Northern Territory AU 9,5   Australia/Darwin
Australia Lord Howe Island AU 10,5 11 Australia/Lord_Howe
Australia New South Wales AU 10 11  
Australia Queensland AU 10    
Australia Victoria AU 10 11 Australia/Melbourne
Australia Australian Captial Territory AU 10 11  
Australia South AU 9,5 10,5 Australia/Adelaide
Australia Tasmania AU 10 11 Australia/Hobart
Australia Western AU 8   Australia/Perth
Austria AT 1 2 Europe/Vienna
Azerbajian AZ 3   Asia/Baku
Azores PT -1 0 Atlantic/Azores
Bahamas BS -5 -4 America/Nassau
Bahrain BH 3   Asia/Bahrain
Balearic Islands   1 2  
Bangladesh BD 6   Asia/Dacca
Barbados BB -4   America/Barbados
Belarus BY 2 3 Europe/Minsk
Belgium BE 1 2 Europe/Brussels
Belize BZ -6   America/Belize
Benin BJ 1   Africa/Porto-Novo
Bermuda BM -4 -3 Atlantic/Bermuda
Bhutan BT 6   Asia/Thimbu
Bolivia BO -4   America/La_Paz
Bonaire   -4    
Bosnia Hercegovina BA 1 2 Europe/Sarajevo
Botswana BW 2   Africa/Gaborone
Brazil Acre BR -4 -5 America/Porto_Acre
Brazil Atlantic Islands BR -1 -2  
Brazil East BR -3 -1  
Brazil West BR -4 -3  
British Virgin Islands VG -4   America/Tortola
Brunei BN 8   Asia/Brunei
Bulgaria BG 2 3 Europe/Sofia
Burkina Faso BF 0   Africa/Ouagadougou
Burundi BI 2   Africa/Bujumbura
Cambodia KH 7   Asia/Phnom_Penh
Cameroon CM 1   Africa/Douala
Canada Central CA -6 -5  
Canada Eastern CA -5 -4  
Canada Mountain CA -7 -6  
Canada Yukon & Pacific CA -8 -7  
Canada Atlantic CA -4 -3  
Canada Newfoundland CA -3,5 -2,5 America/St_Johns
Canary Islands ES 0 1 Atlantic/Canary
Canton Enderbury Islands KI -11   Pacific/Enderbury
Cape Verde CV -1   Atlantic/Cape_Verde
Caroline Island   11    
Cayman Islands KY -5   America/Cayman
Central African Rep CF 1   Africa/Bangui
Chad TD 1   Africa/Ndjamena
Channel Islands   0 1  
Chatham Island NZ 12,75 13,75 Pacific/Chatham
Chile CL -4 -3 America/Santiago
China People's Rep CN 8    
Christmas Islands CX -10   Indian/Christmas
Colombia CO -5   America/Bogota
Congo CD/CG 1    
Cook Islands CK -10   Pacific/Rarotonga
Costa Rica CR -6   America/Costa_Rica
Cote d'Ivoire CI 0   Africa/Abidjan
Croatia HR 1 2 Europe/Zagreb
Cuba CU -5 -4 America/Havana
Curacao   -4    
Cyprus CY 2 3 Asia/Nicosia
Czech Republic CZ 1 2 Europe/Prague
Dahomey   1    
Denmark DK 1 2 Europe/Copenhagen
Djibouti DJ 3   Africa/Djibouti
Dominica DM -4   America/Dominica
Dominican Republic DO -4   America/Santo_Domingo
Easter Island CL -6 -5 Pacific/Easter
Ecuador EC -5   America/Guayaquil
Egypt EG 2 3 Africa/Cairo
El Salvador SV -6   America/El_Salvador
England GB 0 1 Europe/London
Equitorial Guinea GQ 1   Africa/Malabo
Eritrea ER 3   Africa/Asmera
Estonia EE 2 3 Europe/Tallinn
Ethiopia ET 3   Africa/Addis_Ababa
Falkland Islands FK -4 -3 Atlantic/Stanley
Faroe Island FO 0 1 Atlantic/Faeroe
Fiji FJ 12   Pacific/Fiji
Finland FI 2 3 Europe/Helsinki
France FR/FX 1 2 Europe/Paris
French Guiana GF -3   America/Cayenne
French Polynesia PF -10    
Gabon GA 1   Africa/Libreville
Galapagos Islands EC -5   Pacific/Galapagos
Gambia GM 0   Africa/Banjul
Gambier Island PF -9   Pacific/Gambier
Georgia GE 4   Asia/Tbilisi
Germany DE 1 2 Europe/Berlin
Ghana GH 0   Africa/Accra
Gibraltar GI 1 2 Europe/Gibraltar
Greece GR 2 3 Europe/Athens
Greenland GL -3 -2 America/Godthab
Greenland Thule GL -4 -3 America/Thule
Greenland Scoresbysun GL -1 0 America/Scoresbysund
Grenada GD -4   America/Grenada
Grenadines   -4    
Guadeloupe GP -4   America/Guadeloupe
Guam GU 10   Pacific/Guam
Guatemala GT -6   America/Guatemala
Guinea GN 0   Africa/Conakry
Guinea Bissau GW - 0 Africa/Bissau
Guyana GY -3   America/Guyana
Haiti HT -5 -4 America/Port-au-Prince
Honduras HN -6   America/Tegucigalpa
Hong kong CN 8   Asia/Hong_Kong
Hungary HU 1 2 Europe/Budapest
Iceland IS 0   Atlantic/Reykjavik
India IN 5,5   Asia/Calcutta
Indonesia Central ID 8    
Indonesia East ID 9    
Indonesia West ID 7    
Iran IR 3,5   Asia/Tehran
Iraq IQ 3 4 Asia/Baghdad
Ireland Republic of IE 0 1 Europe/Dublin
Israel IL 2 3 Asia/Jerusalem
Italy IT 1 2 Europe/Rome
Jamaica JM -5   America/Jamaica
Japan JP 9   Asia/Tokyo
Johnston Island UM -10   Pacific/Johnston
Jordan JO 2 3 Asia/Amman
Kazakhstan KZ 6 7  
Kenya KE 3   Africa/Nairobi
Kiribati KI 12    
Korea Dem Republic of KR 9   Asia/Seoul
Korea Republic of KP 9   Asia/Pyongyang
Kusaie   12    
Kuwait KW 3   Asia/Kuwait
Kwajalein MH -12   Pacific/Kwajalein
Kyrgyzstan   5 6  
Laos LA 7   Asia/Vientiane
Latvia LV 2 3 Europe/Riga
Lebanon LB 2 3 Asia/Beirut
Leeward Islands   -4    
Lesotho LS 2   Africa/Maseru
Liberia LR 0   Africa/Monrovia
Libya LY 2   Africa/Tripoli
Lithuania LT 2 3 Europe/Vilnius
Luxembourg LU 1 2 Europe/Luxembourg
Macedonia MK 1 2 Europe/Skopje
Madagascar MG 3   Indian/Antananarivo
Madeira PT 0 1 Atlantic/Madeira
Malawi MW 2   Africa/Blantyre
Malaysia MY 8   Asia/Kuala_Lumpur
Maldives MV 5   Indian/Maldives
Mali ML 0    
Mallorca Islands   1 2  
Malta MT 1 2 Europe/Malta
Mariana Island   10    
Marquesas Islands PF -9,5   Pacific/Marquesas
Marshall Islands MH 12   Pacific/Majuro
Martinique MQ -4   America/Martinique
Mauritania MR 0   Africa/Nouakchott
Mauritius MU 4   Indian/Mauritius
Mayotte YT 3   Indian/Mayotte
Melilla ES 1 2 Africa/Ceuta
Mexico MX -6    
Mexico Baja Calif Norte MX -8 -7  
Mexico Nayarit MX -7    
Mexico Sinaloa MX -7    
Mexico Sonora MX -7    
Midway Island UM -11   Pacific/Midway
Moldova MD 2 3 Europe/Chisinau
Moldovian Rep Pridnestrovye   2 3  
Monaco MC 1 2 Europe/Monaco
Mongolia MN 8   Asia/Ulan_Bator
Morocco MA 0   Africa/Casablanca
Mozambique MZ 2   Africa/Maputo
Myanmar (Burma) MM 6,5   Asia/Rangoon
Namibia NA 1 2 Africa/Windhoek
Nauru Republic of NR 12   Pacific/Nauru
Nepal NP 5,75   Asia/Katmandu
Netherlands NL 1 2 Europe/Amsterdam
Netherlands Antilles AN -4   America/Curacao
Nevis Montserrat MS -4   America/Montserrat
New Caledonia NC 11   Pacific/Noumea
New Hebrides   11    
New Zealand NZ 12 13 Pacific/Auckland
Nicaragua NI -6 -5 America/Managua
Niger NE 1   Africa/Niamey
Nigeria NG 1   Africa/Lagos
Niue Island NU -11   Pacific/Niue
Norfolk Island NF 11,5   Pacific/Norfolk
Northern Ireland GB 0 1 Europe/Belfast
Northern Mariana Islands MP 10   Pacific/Saipan
Norway NO 1 2 Europe/Oslo
Oman OM 4   Asia/Muscat
Pakistan PK 5   Asia/Karachi
Palau PW 9   Pacific/Palau
Panama PA -5   America/Panama
Papua New Guinea PG 10   Pacific/Port_Moresby
Paraguay PY -4 -3 America/Asuncion
Peru PE -5   America/Lima
Philippines PH 8   Asia/Manila
Pingelap   12    
Poland PL 1 2 Europe/Warsaw
Ponape Island FM 11   Pacific/Ponape
Portugal PT 1 2 Europe/Lisbon
Principe Island   0    
Puerto Rico PR -4   America/Puerto_Rico
Qatar QA 3   Asia/Qatar
Reunion RE 4   Indian/Reunion
Romania RO 2 3 Europe/Bucharest
Russian Federation zone eight RU 9 10  
Russian Federation zone eleven RU 12 13  
Russian Federation zone five RU 6 7  
Russian Federation zone four RU 5 6  
Russian Federation zone nine RU 10 11  
Russian Federation zone one RU 2 3  
Russian Federation zone seven RU 8 9  
Russian Federation zone six RU 7 8  
Russian Federation zone ten RU 11 12  
Russian Federation zone three RU 4 5  
Russian Federation zone two RU 4 5  
Rwanda RW 2   Africa/Kigali
Saba MY -4   Asia/Kuching
Samoa WS -11   Pacific/Apia
San Marino SM 1 2 Europe/San_Marino
Sao Tome e Principe ST 0   Africa/Sao_Tome
Saudi Arabia SA 3   Asia/Riyadh
Scotland   0 1  
Senegal SN 0   Africa/Dakar
Seychelles SC 4   Indian/Mahe
Sierra Leone SL 0   Africa/Freetown
Singapore SG 8   Asia/Singapore
Slovakia SK 1 2 Europe/Bratislava
Slovenia SI 1 2 Europe/Ljubljana
Society Island PF -10   Pacific/Tahiti
Solomon Islands SB 11   Pacific/Guadalcanal
Somalia SO 3   Africa/Mogadishu
South Africa ZA 2   Africa/Johannesburg
Spain ES 1 2 Europe/Madrid
Sri Lanka LK 5,5   Asia/Colombo
St Christopher   -4    
St Croix   -4    
St Helena SH 0   Atlantic/St_Helena
St John   -4    
St Kitts Nevis KN -4   America/St_Kitts
St Lucia LC -4   America/St_Lucia
St Maarten   -4    
St Pierre & Miquelon PM -3 -2 America/Miquelon
St Thomas   -4    
St Vincent VC -4   America/St_Vincent
Sudan SD 2   Africa/Khartoum
Suriname SR -3   America/Paramaribo
Swaziland SZ 2   Africa/Mbabane
Sweden SE 1 2 Europe/Stockholm
Switzerland CH 1 2 Europe/Zurich
Syria SY 2 3 Asia/Damascus
Tahiti   -10    
Taiwan TW 8   Asia/Taipei
Tajikistan TJ 6   Asia/Dushanbe
Tanzania TZ 3   Africa/Dar_es_Salaam
Thailand TH 7   Asia/Bangkok
Togo TG 0   Africa/Lome
Tonga TO 13   Pacific/Tongatapu
Trinidad and Tobago TT -4   America/Port_of_Spain
Tuamotu Island   -10    
Tubuai Island   -10    
Tunisia TN 1   Africa/Tunis
Turkey TR 2 3 Europe/Istanbul
Turkmenistan TM 5   Asia/Ashkhabad
Turks and Caicos Islands TC -5 -4 America/Grand_Turk
Tuvalu TV 12   Pacific/Funafuti
Uganda UG 3   Africa/Kampala
Ukraine UA 2 3  
United Arab Emirates AE 4   Asia/Dubai
United Kingdom GB 0 1 Europe/London
USA Central US -6 -5  
USA Eastern US -5 -4  
USA Mountain US -7 -6  
USA Arizona US -7   America/Phoenix
USA Indiana East US -5    
USA Pacific US -8 -7 America/Los_Angeles
USA Alaska US -9 -8  
USA Aleutian US -10   America/Adak
USA Hawaii US -10   Pacific/Honolulu
Uruguay UY -3   America/Montevideo
Uzbekistan UZ 5    
Vanuatu VU 11 12 Pacific/Efate
Vatican City VA 1 2 Europe/Vatican
Venezuela VE -4   America/Caracas
Vietnam VN 7   Asia/Saigon
Virgin Islands (US) VI -4   America/St_Thomas
Wake Island UM 12   Pacific/Wake
Wales GB 0 1 Europe/London
Wallis and Futuna Islands WF 12   Pacific/Wallis
Windward Islands   -4    
Yemen YE 3   Asia/Aden
Yugoslavia YU 1 2 Europe/Belgrade
Zaire Kasai   2    
Zaire Kinshasa Mbandaka CD 1   Africa/Kinshasa
Zaire Haut Zaire   2    
Zaire Kivu   2    
Zaire Shaba   2    
Zambia ZM 2   Africa/Lusaka
Zimbabwe ZW 2   Africa/Harare
Bouvet Island BV      
Cocos (Keeling) Islands CC     Indian/Cocos
Western Sahara EH     Africa/El_Aaiun
Micronesia FM      
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands GS     Atlantic/South_Georgia
Heard Island & McDonald Islands HM      
British Indian Ocean Territory IO     Indian/Chagos
Kirgizstan KG     Asia/Bishkek
Comoros KM     Indian/Comoro
Liechtenstein LI     Europe/Vaduz
Macao MO     Asia/Macao
Pitcairn PN     Pacific/Pitcairn
Palestine PS     Asia/Gaza
Svalbard & Jan Mayen SJ      
French Southern & Antarctic Lands TF     Indian/Kerguelen
Tokelau TK     Pacific/Fakaofo
East Timor TP      
US minor outlying islands UM      


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